Top 100 Vulnerabilities in Cybersecurity

100 Vulnerabilities

Cybersecurity vulnerabilities are weaknesses that can be exploited by attackers to gain unauthorized access to systems, steal data, or cause other forms of harm.

Here’s an in-depth look at the top 100 vulnerabilities in cybersecurity, their descriptions, and mitigation strategies.

S.No. Vulnerability Description Mitigation
1 SQL Injection (SQLi) SQL Injection occurs when an attacker can insert or manipulate SQL queries within an application’s input fields. This allows unauthorized access to the database, enabling data retrieval, modification, or deletion. Use prepared statements, parameterized queries, and stored procedures. Validate and sanitize all user inputs.
2 Cross-Site Scripting (XSS) XSS vulnerabilities allow attackers to inject malicious scripts into web pages viewed by users. These scripts can steal session tokens, redirect users, or deface websites. Use Content Security Policy (CSP), sanitize user input, and escape output in HTML contexts.
3 Cross-Site Request Forgery (CSRF) CSRF tricks a user into performing actions on a web application they are authenticated to, without their consent. This can result in unauthorized transactions or data changes. Implement anti-CSRF tokens, use SameSite cookies, and ensure critical actions require re-authentication.
4 Remote Code Execution (RCE) RCE vulnerabilities allow attackers to execute arbitrary code on a server or user’s device. This can lead to full system compromise. Validate and sanitize all user inputs, apply principle of least privilege, and regularly patch software.
5 Command Injection Command injection allows an attacker to execute arbitrary system commands on a server, potentially gaining full control over the system. Use secure coding practices, validate and sanitize inputs, and avoid using system calls with user input.
6 XML Injection XML Injection occurs when an attacker inserts malicious XML content into an XML message, potentially modifying data or causing denial of service. Validate and sanitize XML inputs, use XML parsers with secure configuration.
7 LDAP Injection LDAP Injection exploits vulnerabilities in applications that construct LDAP queries from user input. Attackers can manipulate these queries to access unauthorized data. Use parameterized LDAP queries and validate user inputs.
8 XPath Injection XPath Injection occurs when an attacker injects malicious data into XPath queries, used to navigate XML documents, leading to unauthorized data access. Use parameterized queries, sanitize inputs, and validate user input.
9 HTML Injection HTML Injection allows attackers to inject HTML tags into web pages, which can deface websites or perform malicious actions within a user’s browser. Properly encode output, sanitize user inputs, and use Content Security Policy (CSP).
10 Server-Side Includes (SSI) Injection SSI Injection occurs when an attacker injects server-side include directives into web applications, potentially executing commands or retrieving sensitive information. Disable SSI or validate and sanitize inputs before processing.
11 OS Command Injection Similar to Command Injection, OS Command Injection allows attackers to run operating system commands on a server, leading to potential system compromise. Validate inputs, avoid using system calls with user data, and use secure coding practices.
12 Blind SQL Injection Blind SQL Injection is a type of SQLi where attackers infer database information based on the application’s behavior rather than seeing direct results. Use prepared statements, parameterized queries, and input validation.
13 Server-Side Template Injection (SSTI) SSTI allows attackers to inject malicious templates into template engines, leading to remote code execution or data exposure. Validate and sanitize template inputs, use secure template engines, and limit template functionality.
14 Session Fixation Session Fixation involves an attacker setting or controlling a user’s session ID before they log in, allowing the attacker to hijack the session. Regenerate session IDs upon login and use secure cookie attributes.
15 Brute Force Attack Brute Force Attack is an attempt to guess passwords or cryptographic keys through exhaustive trial and error. Implement account lockout mechanisms, use strong password policies, and employ multi-factor authentication.
16 Session Hijacking Session Hijacking involves stealing a user’s session ID to gain unauthorized access to their session and perform actions on their behalf. Use secure session management practices, encrypt session data, and implement HTTPS.
17 Password Cracking Password Cracking involves using automated tools to guess or retrieve passwords from data breaches or hash dumps. Use strong, hashed passwords with salts, enforce strong password policies, and implement multi-factor authentication.
18 Weak Password Storage Storing passwords in an insecure manner, such as in plain text or using weak hashing algorithms, makes them easy targets for attackers. Use strong, modern hashing algorithms (e.g., bcrypt, Argon2) with salts for password storage.
19 Insecure Authentication Insecure authentication mechanisms, such as weak password policies or lack of multi-factor authentication, make it easier for attackers to gain unauthorized access. Implement strong authentication measures, including multi-factor authentication and secure password policies.
20 Cookie Theft Cookie Theft occurs when attackers steal session cookies, enabling them to hijack user sessions and perform unauthorized actions. Use secure cookie attributes (HttpOnly, Secure, SameSite) and implement HTTPS.
21 Credential Reuse Credential Reuse exploits users reusing passwords across multiple sites. A breach in one site can lead to compromised accounts elsewhere. Encourage unique passwords for each site, use password managers, and implement multi-factor authentication.
22 Inadequate Encryption Inadequate encryption involves using weak or no encryption for sensitive data, making it vulnerable to interception and compromise. Use strong encryption protocols (e.g., AES-256), secure key management practices, and ensure end-to-end encryption.
23 Insecure Direct Object References (IDOR) IDOR occurs when an application exposes a reference to an internal object (e.g., file, database record) without proper authorization checks. Implement access controls and validate authorization for object access.
24 Data Leakage Data Leakage involves unintentional exposure of sensitive information, which can occur through logs, error messages, or unsecured data storage. Secure data storage, sanitize logs, and avoid detailed error messages.
25 Unencrypted Data Storage Storing sensitive data without encryption can lead to data breaches if the storage medium is compromised. Encrypt sensitive data at rest and in transit, and use secure key management.
26 Missing Security Headers Security headers provide additional security controls to web applications. Missing these headers can expose applications to various attacks. Implement security headers such as Content Security Policy (CSP), X-Content-Type-Options, and X-Frame-Options.
27 Insecure File Handling Insecure file handling practices, such as improper validation or storage, can lead to code execution, data breaches, or denial of service. Validate and sanitize file inputs, use secure file storage practices, and implement access controls.
28 Default Passwords Using default passwords provided by vendors makes it easy for attackers to gain unauthorized access if the defaults are not changed. Change default passwords to strong, unique passwords upon initial setup.
29 Directory Listing Directory Listing allows attackers to view and navigate directories on a web server, potentially exposing sensitive files. Disable directory listing on web servers and secure access to directories.
30 Unprotected API Endpoints Unprotected API endpoints can be accessed without proper authentication or authorization, exposing sensitive data or functionality. Implement authentication and authorization for all API endpoints and use rate limiting.
31 Open Ports and Services Open ports and services on a server can expose vulnerabilities if they are not properly secured or necessary. Close unnecessary ports and services, use firewalls, and perform regular security audits.
32 Improper Access Controls Inadequate access controls allow unauthorized users to access sensitive data or functionality. Implement role-based access control (RBAC), enforce the principle of least privilege, and perform regular access reviews.
33 Information Disclosure Information Disclosure involves unintentionally exposing sensitive information through error messages, logs, or application responses. Limit information in error messages, secure logs, and validate data exposure.
34 Unpatched Software Running unpatched software exposes systems to known vulnerabilities that attackers can exploit. Regularly update and patch software, use automated patch management systems.
35 Misconfigured CORS Misconfigured Cross-Origin Resource Sharing (CORS) policies can allow unauthorized cross-origin requests, leading to data breaches. Configure CORS policies correctly, restrict allowed origins, and validate headers.
36 HTTP Security Headers Misconfiguration Incorrect configuration of HTTP security headers can leave applications vulnerable to various attacks. Implement and correctly configure security headers such as CSP, HSTS, and X-Frame-Options.
37 XML External Entity (XXE) Injection XXE Injection allows attackers to interfere with XML processing, potentially accessing internal files or executing remote code. Disable external entity processing, use secure XML parsers, and validate XML inputs.
38 XML Entity Expansion (XEE) XEE involves exploiting the expansion of XML entities to cause resource exhaustion, leading to denial of service. Limit XML entity expansion, use secure XML parsers, and validate XML inputs.
39 XML Bomb An XML Bomb is a malicious XML document designed to cause a denial of service by overwhelming system resources during parsing. Limit XML entity expansion, use secure XML parsers, and validate XML inputs.
40 Inadequate Authorization Weak authorization mechanisms can allow unauthorized users to access restricted data or functionality. Implement strict authorization checks, enforce role-based access control, and perform regular access reviews.
41 Privilege Escalation Privilege Escalation involves gaining higher-level privileges than intended, potentially compromising the entire system. Use principle of least privilege, implement strict access controls, and monitor for unusual activity.
42 Insecure Direct Object References (IDOR) Duplicate of earlier description for IDOR. Implement access controls and validate authorization for object access.
43 Forceful Browsing Forceful Browsing involves accessing parts of a web application not intended for the user by manipulating URLs or parameters. Implement proper access controls, validate user permissions, and use secure coding practices.
44 Missing Function-Level Access Control Missing access control for specific functions can allow unauthorized users to perform restricted actions. Implement access control checks at the function level and perform regular security assessments.
45 Remote Code Execution via Deserialization Deserialization vulnerabilities allow attackers to inject malicious objects during deserialization, leading to code execution. Validate and sanitize serialized data, use safe deserialization libraries, and avoid deserialization of untrusted data.
46 Data Tampering Data Tampering involves unauthorized modification of data, potentially compromising data integrity and application behavior. Implement integrity checks, use cryptographic hashes, and validate data inputs.
47 Object Injection Object Injection vulnerabilities occur when untrusted data is used to instantiate objects, leading to code execution or data manipulation. Validate and sanitize inputs, use safe deserialization libraries, and avoid untrusted data for object creation.
48 Insecure API Endpoints Duplicate of earlier description for Unprotected API Endpoints. Implement authentication and authorization for all API endpoints and use rate limiting.
49 API Key Exposure Exposing API keys in code repositories or client-side code can lead to unauthorized access to APIs. Store API keys securely, use environment variables, and implement API key rotation.
50 Lack of Rate Limiting Without rate limiting, APIs are vulnerable to abuse, such as brute force attacks or denial of service. Implement rate limiting on API endpoints to prevent abuse.
51 Inadequate Input Validation Inadequate input validation allows attackers to inject malicious data, leading to various attacks such as SQLi, XSS, or RCE. Validate and sanitize all user inputs, use allowlists and proper encoding.
52 Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) Attack MITM attacks intercept and potentially alter communication between two parties without their knowledge. Use HTTPS, implement certificate pinning, and employ end-to-end encryption.
53 Insufficient Transport Layer Security Weak or missing transport layer security exposes data to interception and tampering during transmission. Use TLS/SSL for all data transmission, disable weak ciphers, and regularly update certificates.
54 Insecure SSL/TLS Configuration Misconfigured SSL/TLS settings can leave applications vulnerable to interception, tampering, or downgrade attacks. Follow best practices for SSL/TLS configuration, use strong ciphers, and regularly update configurations.
55 Insecure Communication Protocols Using insecure communication protocols can expose data to interception and tampering. Use secure protocols like HTTPS, SSH, and TLS for all communication.
56 DOM-based XSS DOM-based XSS occurs when client-side scripts manipulate the DOM in an insecure manner, allowing attackers to inject malicious scripts. Sanitize and validate all inputs before manipulating the DOM, use secure JavaScript practices.
57 Insecure Cross-Origin Communication Insecure handling of cross-origin requests can lead to unauthorized access or data leaks. Implement secure CORS policies, validate origins, and use secure communication practices.
58 Browser Cache Poisoning Browser Cache Poisoning involves injecting malicious content into the browser cache, which can be used for further attacks. Use secure cache control headers, validate cacheable responses, and use Content Security Policy (CSP).
59 Clickjacking Clickjacking tricks users into clicking on hidden elements, potentially performing unwanted actions. Implement X-Frame-Options header, use framebusting scripts, and employ Content Security Policy (CSP).
60 HTML5 Security Issues HTML5 introduces new features and APIs that, if not properly secured, can be exploited for attacks such as XSS, CSRF, and data leaks. Follow secure coding practices for HTML5, validate and sanitize inputs, and use security headers.
61 Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) DDoS attacks overwhelm a server or network with traffic, causing service disruption or unavailability. Use DDoS protection services, implement rate limiting, and have scalable infrastructure.
62 Application Layer DoS Application Layer DoS targets specific application features or endpoints, causing resource exhaustion and service disruption. Implement rate limiting, optimize application performance, and use application firewalls.
63 Resource Exhaustion Resource Exhaustion involves consuming all available resources, such as CPU, memory, or disk space, leading to denial of service. Implement resource limits, use rate limiting, and monitor resource usage.
64 Slowloris Attack Slowloris keeps many connections to the target server open and idle, exhausting its resources and causing denial of service. Implement connection timeout policies, use load balancers, and employ web application firewalls.
65 XML Denial of Service XML-based DoS attacks exploit XML parsing to cause resource exhaustion, such as with XML bombs or excessive entity expansion. Use secure XML parsers, limit entity expansion, and validate XML inputs.
66 Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) SSRF occurs when an attacker tricks a server into making unauthorized requests to internal or external services. Validate and sanitize URLs, implement network segmentation, and use allowlists for internal services.
67 HTTP Parameter Pollution (HPP) HPP involves manipulating HTTP parameters to inject malicious input or bypass security controls. Validate and sanitize all HTTP parameters, use allowlists, and implement strict input parsing.
68 Insecure Redirects and Forwards Insecure redirects and forwards can lead to phishing, data leakage, or unauthorized access. Validate all redirects and forwards, use relative URLs, and implement access controls.
69 File Inclusion Vulnerabilities File inclusion vulnerabilities, such as Local File Inclusion (LFI) and Remote File Inclusion (RFI), allow attackers to include and execute files from the server or remote locations. Validate and sanitize file paths, use allowlists, and restrict file permissions.
70 Security Header Bypass Security Header Bypass involves exploiting misconfigurations or weaknesses in security headers to bypass protections. Properly configure and regularly review security headers, use Content Security Policy (CSP).
71 Clickjacking Duplicate of earlier description for Clickjacking. Implement X-Frame-Options header, use framebusting scripts, and employ Content Security Policy (CSP).
72 Inadequate Session Timeout Inadequate session timeout allows an attacker to reuse a user’s session if left active for too long. Implement session timeout policies, use inactivity timers, and encourage users to log out.
73 Insufficient Logging and Monitoring Lack of proper logging and monitoring makes it difficult to detect and respond to security incidents. Implement comprehensive logging and monitoring, use SIEM tools, and regularly review logs.
74 Business Logic Vulnerabilities Business logic vulnerabilities exploit flaws in the application’s logic to perform unauthorized actions or gain advantages. Conduct thorough security reviews of business logic, implement input validation, and perform security testing.
75 API Abuse API Abuse involves exploiting API functionalities in unintended ways to perform unauthorized actions or cause disruptions. Implement rate limiting, use authentication and authorization, and monitor API usage.
76 Insecure Data Storage on Mobile Devices Storing sensitive data insecurely on mobile devices can lead to data breaches if the device is lost or compromised. Encrypt sensitive data, use secure storage APIs, and implement remote wipe capabilities.
77 Insecure Data Transmission on Mobile Devices Transmitting data insecurely on mobile devices exposes it to interception and tampering. Use HTTPS, implement end-to-end encryption, and avoid transmitting sensitive data over insecure channels.
78 Insecure Mobile API Endpoints Mobile API endpoints that are not properly secured can expose sensitive data or functionality. Use authentication and authorization, implement rate limiting, and validate inputs.
79 Mobile App Reverse Engineering Reverse engineering mobile apps can expose source code, sensitive data, or vulnerabilities. Use code obfuscation, encrypt sensitive data, and implement tamper detection.
80 Insecure IoT Device IoT devices with weak security can be compromised, leading to unauthorized access, data breaches, or botnet recruitment. Implement strong authentication, use secure communication protocols, and regularly update firmware.
81 Weak Authentication on IoT Devices Weak or default authentication mechanisms on IoT devices can be easily bypassed, leading to unauthorized access. Use strong, unique passwords, implement multi-factor authentication, and enforce account lockout policies.
82 IoT Device Vulnerabilities IoT devices often have vulnerabilities due to poor security practices, leading to potential compromises. Regularly update and patch devices, conduct security assessments, and implement secure development practices.
83 Unauthorized Access to Smart Homes Weak security in smart home devices can allow attackers to gain control over home automation systems. Use strong authentication, secure communication protocols, and regularly update device firmware.
84 IoT Data Privacy Issues IoT devices often collect and transmit sensitive data, raising privacy concerns if not properly secured. Implement data encryption, use secure storage, and provide users with privacy controls.
85 Insecure “Remember Me” Functionality Insecure implementation of “remember me” functionality can expose user credentials or session information. Encrypt tokens, implement secure storage, and use short-lived tokens.
86 CAPTCHA Bypass Attackers can bypass CAPTCHA mechanisms to automate actions or perform brute force attacks. Use more advanced CAPTCHA solutions, implement additional security measures, and monitor for suspicious activity.
87 Blind SSRF Blind SSRF involves sending requests from the server to an internal or external service without seeing the response, still causing potential harm. Validate and sanitize URLs, implement network segmentation, and use allowlists.
88 Time-Based Blind SSRF Time-Based Blind SSRF involves manipulating the timing of responses to infer information from a server without seeing the actual response. Validate and sanitize URLs, implement network segmentation, and use allowlists.
89 MIME Sniffing MIME Sniffing vulnerabilities allow attackers to manipulate the way browsers interpret content types, leading to potential XSS or other attacks. Use X-Content-Type-Options header, validate content types, and properly configure web servers.
90 X-Content-Type-Options Bypass Bypassing the X-Content-Type-Options header can allow MIME Sniffing attacks, leading to XSS or other issues. Properly configure content types, use secure development practices, and validate inputs.
91 Content Security Policy (CSP) Bypass Bypassing CSP can lead to XSS or other injection attacks, despite CSP being in place. Regularly review and update CSP rules, use nonces and hashes, and validate inputs.
92 Inconsistent Validation Inconsistent validation across different parts of an application can lead to security gaps and exploitation. Implement centralized validation, use consistent validation libraries, and perform regular security assessments.
93 Race Conditions Race Conditions occur when multiple processes access shared resources in an uncontrolled manner, leading to data corruption or security vulnerabilities. Implement proper synchronization, use thread-safe code, and conduct thorough testing.
94 Order Processing Vulnerabilities Flaws in order processing can allow attackers to manipulate order details, prices, or quantities. Validate order inputs, implement checks for consistency, and use secure transaction processing.
95 Price Manipulation Price Manipulation involves altering the price of items or services during the purchasing process. Validate prices on the server side, use secure payment gateways, and implement integrity checks.
96 Account Enumeration Account Enumeration involves discovering valid usernames or email addresses through error messages or response behavior. Use generic error messages, implement rate limiting, and monitor for suspicious activity.
97 User-Based Flaws User-based flaws involve vulnerabilities specific to user interactions, such as weak password policies or insufficient session management. Implement strong security policies, use secure session management, and conduct user training.
98 Unknown Vulnerabilities Unknown vulnerabilities, also known as zero-day vulnerabilities, are security flaws that have not yet been discovered or patched. Implement defense-in-depth strategies, use security monitoring tools, and stay updated with security patches.
99 Unpatched Vulnerabilities Unpatched vulnerabilities are known security flaws that have not been addressed or patched, leaving systems open to attacks. Regularly update and patch systems, use automated patch management tools, and conduct security assessments.
100 Day-Zero Exploits Day-Zero Exploits are attacks that occur immediately after a vulnerability is discovered, before patches are available. Implement security monitoring, use intrusion detection systems, and apply patches as soon as they are released.
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