50+ Useful Linux Commands with Examples

Linux Commands Cheatsheet Techhyme

Linux, as a powerful and versatile operating system, offers a wide range of commands that can greatly enhance your productivity and efficiency. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced user, mastering some essential Linux commands is invaluable.

In this article, we will explore several useful Linux commands along with examples of their usage.

1 To print today’s date: date
2 To print hostname of the pc: hostname
3 To perform basic mathematical calculation: expr [number 1 (+/-/(/)/*) number 2 (+/-/(/)/*) number 3 . . . ]
4 To print string of characters: echo “Any string”
5 To print name of the OS: uname
6 To print details of the OS: uname -a
7 To print version of the bash: bash –version
8 Debugging a program: echo $?
9 To print history of commands typed on the terminal: history
10 To change hostname: hostnamectl set-hostname –static “name of your choice”
11 To see only files: ls
12 To see lists even hidden files: ls -a
13 To see details of the files: ls -l
14 To see details of the normal and hidden files: ls -la
15 To remove a file from current directory: r m [filename in any format]
16 To remove all files from current directory: rm -a
17 To change directory, to move around to different folders: cd ./name of the directory
18 To return directly to home directory: cd
19 To return to previous folder: cd ..
20 To make a directory: mkdir
21 To remove a directory: rmdir
22 To remove a directory and all of its contents recursively: rmdir -r [name of the directory]
23 To change permissions of accessibility of file in the terminal: chmod +x ‘filename’
24 To download a folder: (wget or (curl -L)) http://example.com/download.zip -o download.zip
25 To show current directory: pwd
26 To read a file from terminal: cat <name of the file in .txt format>
27 To read a file one at a time from terminal: less [name of the file in .txt format]
28 To copy a file: cp <name of the file to be copied> <new name of the file that will be copied>
29 To move a file: mv <name of the file> <directory file to be moved>
30 To create a file: touch <filename.extension>
31 To open a folder: nautilus /<destination of the directory>
32 To create shortcut for commands: alias <user defined shortcut key>=‘<command>’
33 To see list of block devices i.e. internal and external hard drives: lsblk
34 To burn .iso image in USB: sudo dd if=nameoffile.iso of=/dev/destinationdisk bs=1M
35 To have access as root user: sudo passwd root followed by su –
36 To open terminal text editor either vim or nano: vim (for vim) or nano (for nano)
37 To check architecture if 32 or 64 bit: arch result x86_64 for 64 bit and i386 for 32 bit
38 To display HTTP header(information about server and cookies): printf ‘HEAD / HTTP/1.1\r\nHost: [host address]\r\n\r\n’ | nc [host address] 80
39 To check IP address and details about mail handled of a website: host [domain name]
40 To test network connection if it is established and speed of the connection: ping [domain name]
41 To check how network is configured. Displays NAT ip addresses of ethernet connection and wifi and all other information: ifconfig
42 To check all the information of network devices whether they are active or inactive: ifconfig -a
43 To enable or disable one of the networking device: ifconfig [name of the device] [up to enable and down to disable]
44 To display ethernet address of the current network card: arp
45 To change ip address: ifconfig (name of the device) ip address of your desire
46 To change subnet mask: ifconfig (name of the device) netmask
47 To change mac address: ifconfig (name of the device) hw ether 43:42:12. .
48 To display more information about wifi: iwconfig
49 To show only ip addresses of all the devices rather than just domains connected to machine: netstat -nr
50 To display the usage of the network cards(to show how many packets in bytes are sent and transferred): netstat -i
51 To look for active internet connections: netstat -ta
52 To look for active internet connections: netstat -tan
53 To find detailed information of a domain: whois (domain name)
54 To perform detailed DNS lookup: dig (domain name)
55 To perform DNS lookup: nfslookup (domain name)
56 To trace no. of hops taken to access domain and lists all the routers the packets come across: traceroute (domain name)
57 To show hostname: hostname
58 To show ip addresses both ipv4 and and ipv6: hostname -I
59 To capture all packets that are going to and from the pc: sudo tcpdump
60 To capture only certain amount of packets: sudo tcpdump -c no. of packets to be captured(amount in numbers)
61 To capture only certain amount of packets in hexadecimal or ascii format: sudo tcpdump (-XX for hexa or -A) for ASCII -c 5
62 To compile a file in .c format: clang file.c
63 Executable file a.out is generated. To run this file: ./a.out
64 To generate executable file with nicer name: clang -o file file.c . Now, ./file can be run.
65 To generate assembly code: clang -S filename.c
66 To disable assertions: – o filename.py
67 To compile a java file to generate .class executable file: javac filename.java
68 To run java file on terminal or console: java filename


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