Standard are documented agreement containing technical specification or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that material, products, processes and services are to fit for their purposes. For example-the format of the credit cards, phone cards,and smart cards that have become common place is derived form an ISO international standard.
ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is an independent, non-governmental international organization that develops and publishes standards for a wide range of industries, including technology, energy, healthcare, and more.
ISO standards are developed through a consensus-based process, involving representatives from relevant industry sectors, government agencies, and other stakeholders. These standards help to ensure the quality, safety, and efficiency of products and services, as well as facilitate trade and communication between countries.
Adhering to the standard,which defines such features as an optimal thickness, means that the cards can be used worldwide. International standard thus contribute to making life simpler and to increasing the reliability and effectiveness of the goods and services we use.
The international organization for standardization based in Geneva, Switzerland is Commonly known as “ISO”. ISO is a word derived from the Greek ISOs, meaning equal. ISO is an international, non government organization that promotes the development and implementation of voluntary international standards.
This is done through a co-operative, consensus building process that result in the creation of product and process management standards, ISO consists of 120 member countries each represented by a national organization, the American national standard institute (ANSI) represents the united states at ISO.
ISO standard are written specification and guidance documents that establish internationally harmonized conventions for the operations,design, performance, or management of products(technical standards) and processes(management standards).
ISO standards are developed within ISO technical committees commonly referred to as “TCs.” TCs are made up of individual experts from industry, government, public interest groups and academia from any number countries that wish to participate. Most ISO standards are technical standards, the ISO 9000 series and ISO 14000 series are management standards. The ISO standard series includes the following system standards indicating their specific purposes.
- ISO 9000:- Quality management and quality assurance standards guidelines for selection and servicing.
- ISO 9001:- Model for quality assurance in design and development. Production installation and servicing.
- ISO 9002:- Model for quality assurance in production and installation.
- ISO 9003:- Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test.
- ISO 9004:- Generic guidelines for quality management and systems.
- ISO 9004:- Guidelines for services.
- ISO 14001:- Environmental management systems guidelines for principals, systems and supporting techniques.
The purpose of ISO standards is to provide a common set of guidelines, specifications, or criteria that can be used consistently across a variety of industries and applications. ISO standards can serve a number of different purposes, including:
- Ensuring the quality of products and services: ISO standards can help to ensure that products and services meet certain minimum requirements for quality, reliability, and performance.
- Promoting safety: Many ISO standards are related to safety, and are designed to help reduce the risk of accidents or injuries in the workplace or in the use of a particular product or service.
- Facilitating trade: ISO standards can help to ensure that products and services are compatible and can be used interchangeably, which can facilitate trade between countries.
- Improving efficiency: ISO standards can help to improve the efficiency of processes and systems, by establishing clear guidelines for how things should be done.
- Enhancing communication: ISO standards can help to ensure that technical terms and definitions are used consistently, which can improve communication between different stakeholders.
There are many different types of ISO standards, as the organization develops and publishes standards for a wide range of industries and applications. Some common types of ISO standards include:
Management systems standards: These standards provide guidelines for the development and implementation of management systems in areas such as quality, environmental protection, and health and safety. Examples include ISO 9001 (quality management), ISO 14001 (environmental management), and ISO 45001 (health and safety management).
Technical standards: These standards provide technical specifications or guidelines for a specific product, material, or process. Examples include ISO 15189 (medical laboratories), ISO 10002 (customer satisfaction), and ISO 22000 (food safety).
Vocabulary standards: These standards provide definitions and terminology for a specific field or industry. Examples include ISO 10303 (product data representation and exchange), ISO 80000 (quantities and units), and ISO 3166 (country codes).
Conformity assessment standards: These standards provide guidelines for evaluating the conformity of products, processes, or services to specified requirements. Examples include ISO/IEC 17025 (general requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories), ISO/IEC 17020 (conformity assessment – requirements for the operation of various types of bodies performing inspection), and ISO/IEC 17065 (conformity assessment – requirements for bodies certifying products, processes, and services).
Standardization in support of public policy: These standards provide guidelines for issues that have a public policy aspect, such as social responsibility, consumer protection, and environmental protection. Examples include ISO 26000 (social responsibility), ISO 10002 (customer satisfaction), and ISO 14001 (environmental management).
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