Top 55 Common Terms Related To Internet Security

Internet Security Techhyme

As the digital landscape continues to evolve, internet security becomes an increasingly critical aspect of our online lives. The internet has brought countless opportunities and conveniences, but it also presents potential risks and threats. To navigate the world of cybersecurity effectively, it’s essential to understand the common internet security terms that are frequently encountered.

In this article, we will demystify some of the most prevalent internet security terms to empower users with the knowledge to stay safe and secure online.

  1. Access Control: A term used to ensure that resources are only granted to users who are entitled to them.
  2. Active Content: Code that’s embedded in a web site. When the site is accessed the code is automatically downloaded and executed.
  3. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): An encryption standard designed to specify an unclassified, publicly disclosed, symmetric encryption algorithm.
  4. Asymmetric Cryptography: Public key cryptography, where algorithms use a pair of keys, one public and one private, to unlock the content protected by the encryption.
  5. Authentication: Used by systems to confirm the identity of a user.
  6. Backdoor: A tool used by hackers or system security experts to access a computer system or network, bypassing the system’s usual security mechanisms.
  7. Bandwidth: The limited amount of communications data that any channel is capable of sending or receiving in a specific time.
  8. Biometrics: A security measure that uses physical characteristics to authenticate a user’s access to a system.
  9. Boot Sector Virus: A virus that can affect a computer as it boots, before the operating system has even loaded.
  10. Botnet: A large number of Internet connected, infected computers that are used to flood a network or send spam message to the rest of the Internet.
  11. Brute Force: A hacking technique that uses all possible password combinations one at a time in order to gain access to a user account or system.
  12. Cipher: A cryptographic algorithm used in the encryption and decryption process.
  13. Cookie: A file used to store information about a website that can be read should the user ever visit the site again.
  14. Cyber Attack: An attack on a system using malware to compromise its security. Usually in order to gain access to steal information or demand a ransom.
  15. Cyber Bullying: When an individual, or group of individuals, threaten or post negative and derogatory messages or doctored images of someone online.
  16. Data Encryption Standard (DES): A popular method of data encryption using a private (secret) key. There are 72,000,000,000,000,000 (72 quadrillion) or more possible encryption keys that can be used.
  17. Decryption: The process of transforming an encrypted message into its original text form.
  18. Demilitarised Zone (DMZ): A demilitarised zone (DMZ) or perimeter network is a network area (a subnetwork) that sits between an organisation’s internal network and an external network, usually the Internet. DMZ’s help to enable the layered security model in that they provide subnetwork segmentation based on security requirements or policy. DMZ’s provide either a transit mechanism from a secure source to an insecure destination or from an insecure source to a more secure destination.
  19. Denial of Service (DoS): Prevention of authorised access to a system or network.
  20. Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP): A plan of action used to restore systems in the event of a disaster.
  21. Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS): A type of DoS attack using multiple attacking systems to amplify the amount of network traffic, thereby flooding and swamping the target systems or networks.
  22. Domain Name System (DNS): The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol addresses. A domain name is a meaningful and easy to remember ‘handle’ for an Internet address.
  23. Encryption: The process of securing data by transforming it into something unreadable using cryptographic means.
  24. Ethernet: Communication architecture for wired local area networks.
  25. Fingerprinting: Used by hackers and security experts to send packets to system in order to see how it
    responds, usually to determine the operating system and security measures.
  26. Firewall: A hardware or software layer designed to prevent unauthorised access to or from a computer or
    network to another computer or network.
  27. Flooding: A malware attack that causes an eventual failure of a system by bombarding it with a continuous stream of data.
  28. Gateway: A network point that acts as the door into another network.
  29. Hacker: Someone who violates or circumvents a computer security measure. Can be used for malicious purposes or legitimately to test a system’s vulnerabilities.
  30. HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol, the protocol used by the World Wide Web (Internet) that defines how messages are sent, received and read by browsers and other connected software layers.
  31. HTTPS: Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure, an encrypted and far more secure version of HTTP.
  32. Internet Protocol Address (IP): A standard used by servers and machines to connect to each other and form an individual identity for each connected device.
  33. Internet Service Provider (ISP): A company that provides Internet access to businesses and residential addresses. IP Spoofing: A form of attack where a device provides a false IP address to a server or network.
  34. Key Logger: A type of malware that can record key presses as a text file and send that file to a remote source. Once obtained, the hacker can then see what keys you’ve pressed.
  35. Local Area Network (LAN): Communications network linking multiple devices in a defined, limited location, such as a home or office.
  36. Logic Bomb: A type of malware that’s dormant until a predefined time when it explodes and runs or injects malicious code into a system.
  37. Malicious Code: Software that’s designed to circumvent security measures and gain unauthorised access to a system.
  38. Malware: A generic term to describe different types of malicious code.
  39. Network: A group of linked computers or devices that can share resources and communicate with each other.
  40. Password: A secret security measure used to access a protected resource and authenticate access.
  41. Phishing: A method used by cyber criminals to obtain information from a user by baiting them with fake emails or messages.
  42. PIN: Personal Identification Number, used as a form of authentication access to a system, resource or user account.
  43. Ransomware: A type of malware that locks, or encrypts, all files on a system until a ransom is paid and the unlock code is entered.
  44. Rootkit: A set of tools used by a hacker to mask their intrusion and obtain administrator access to a system.
  45. Sandbox: A system architecture designed to test code in a secure and safe environment without it affecting the host system.
  46. Spoofing: An attempt to gain unauthorised access.
  47. Spyware: A type of malware that spies on a user’s activities or system and reports back to a remote system.
  48. Trojan Horse: A type of malware designed as a useful program but in reality hides some malicious code.
  49. Two-Factor Authentication: Authorisation of access to a system or resource through a username/password combination as well as another form of authorisation, such as a PIN code.
  50. Virus: A type of malware designed for multiple purposes to spread and infect as many computer systems as possible. Usually destructive but can be used to grind a system to a halt by using up all of its available resources.
  51. VPN: Virtual Private Network, a secure tunnel between two systems using advanced encryption methods to protect the communications between systems.
  52. Wi-Fi: A wireless network standard between connected systems.
  53. Worm: A type of malware that can replicate itself and spread through other systems consuming resources and contents destructively.
  54. Zero Day: Described as the day a new security vulnerability is discovered, one that has no fix or patch yet to stop it.
  55. Zombie(s): A computer that’s infected with malware and connected to a network or the Internet and used to spread its infection to other computers. Used also to describe an attack on other systems by hoards of zombie computers.
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