October 24, 2021


A Blog For Tech Enthusiasts

A to Z – Network Security Related Abbreviations and Terms

22 min read
data communication and networking abbreviations a to z tech hyme

The simple fact of security is that you cannot do a very good job defending unless you first know what you are defending!

Information technology resources span many different types of technologies and involve many different types of users. Almost every facet of an organization in almost every industry is involved with its use. The information security process is critical to the integrity and survival of today’s organizations.

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Of course, there are many different types of safeguards and controls available for use in securing an organization’s environment. The most pertinent technical safeguards are:

  • Network firewall
  • Gateway/server/host antivirus/mobile code software
  • Host firewall
  • Host lockdown and system monitoring software
  • Hardware/software VPN
  • Application input filter
  • Network intrusion detection system
  • Secure coding practices
  • Host intrusion detection system
  • Central user authentication server
  • Honey pot and network decoy
  • Password management/control system
  • Proxy server
  • Access and policy control server
  • Load balancer
  • Smartcard/token two-factor authentication
  • Router ACL
  • Degassing and data wiping software/tool
  • Switch VLAN
  • Network security audit/assessment
  • Vulnerability scanning/management software
  • Coding security audit/review
  • Event/system log monitoring and alerting software
  • Virtual machine
  • OS patch management software
  • File encryption
  • Security login banner
  • E-mail encryption

Below is the list of common abbreviations and terms used in Network Security;

S.No. Short Name Full Name Details
1 ASN.1 Abstract Syntax Notation 1 A standard for representing simple and structured data.
2 AP Access Point A central base station in a BSS.
3 ACK Acknowledgement A response sent by the receiver to indicate the successful receipt of data.
4 ARP Address Resolution Protocol In TCP/IP, a protocol for obtaining the physical address of a node when the Internet address in known.
5 AES Advanced Encryption Standard A secret key cryptosystem adapted by NIST to replace DES.
6 AMPS Advanced Mobile Phone System A north American analog cellular phone system using FDMA.
7 ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency The government agency that funded ARPANET.
8 ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network The packet switching network that was funded by ARPA.
9 ALOHA The original random multiple access method in which a station can send a frame any time it has one to send.
10 AMI Alternate Mark Inversion A digital-to-digital bipolar encoding method in which the amplitude representing 1 alternates between positive and negative voltages.
11 ANSI Americal National Standards Institute A national standards organization that defines the standards in the United States.
12 ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange A character code developed by ANSI that used extensively for data communication.
13 AM Amplitude Modulation An analog-to-analog conversion method in which the carrier signal’s amplitude varies with the amplitude of the modulating signal.
14 ASK Amplitude Shift Keying A modulation method in which the amplitude of the carrier signal is varied to represent binary 0 or 1.
15 AAL Application Adaption Layer A layer in ATM protocol that breaks user data into 48-byte payloads.
16 ADSL Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line A communication technology in which the downstream data rate is higher than the upstream rate.
17 ABM Asynchronous Balanced Mode In HDLC, a communication mode in which all in which all stations are equal.
18 ACL Asynchronous Connectionless Link A link between a Bluetooth master and slave in which a corrupted payload is retransmitted.
19 ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode A wide area protocol featuring high data rates and equal-sized packets (cells); ATM is suitable for transferring text, audio, and video data.
20 AUI Attachment Unit Interface A 10Base5 cable that performs the physical interface functions between the station and the transceiver.
21 AH Authentication Header Protocol A Protocol defined by IPSec at the network layer that provides integrity to a message through the creation of a digital signature by a hashing function.
22 AS Authentication Server The KDC in the kerberos protocol.
23 ARQ Automatic Repeat Request An error-control method in which correction is made by re-transmission of data.
24 AS Autonomous System A group of networks and routers under the authority of a single administration.
25 BECN Backward Explicit Congestion Notification A bit in the Frame Relay packet that notifies the sender of congestion.
26 BER Basic Encoding Rule A standard that encodes data to be transferred through a network.
27 BSS Basic Service Set The building block of a wireless LAN as defined by the IEEE 802.11 standard.
28 BNC Bayone-Neill-Concelman Connector A common coaxial cable connector.
29 B-frame Bidirectional Frame An MPEG frame that is related to the preceding and following I-frame or P-frame.
30 B8ZS Bipolar With 8-Zero Substitution A scrambling technique in which a stream of 8 zeroes are replaced by a predefined pattern to improve bit synchronization.
31 BOOTP Bootstrap Protocol The protocol that provides configuration information form a table (file).
32 BGP Border Gateway Protocol An interautonomous system routing protocol based on path vector routing.
33 BUS Broadcast/Unknown Server A server connected to an ATM switch that can multicast and broadcast frames.
34 CMTS Cable Modem Transmission System A device installed inside the distribution hub that receives data from the Internet and passes them to the combiner.
35 CSMA Carrier Sense Multiple Access A Contention access method in which each station listens to the line before transmitting data.
36 CSMA/CA Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Avoidance An access method in which collision is avoided.
37 CSMA/CD Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection An Access method in which stations transmit whenever the transmission medium is available and re-transmit when collision occurs.
38 CA Certification Authority An agency such as a federal or state organization that binds a public key to an entity and issues a certificate.
39 CHAP Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol In PPP, a three-way handshaking protocol used for authentication.
40 CBC Cipher Block Chaining Mode A DES and triple DES operation mode in which the encryption (or decryption) of a block depends on all previous blocks.
41 CFB Cipher Feedback mode A DES and triple DES operation mode in which data is sent and received 1 bit at a time, with each bit independent of the previous bits.
42 CSM Cipher Stream Mode A DES and triple DES operation mode in which data is sent and received 1 byte at a time.
43 CIDR Classless InterDomain Routing A technique to reduce the number of routing table entries when supernetting is used.
44 CDMA Code Division Multiple Access A multiple access method in which one channel carries all transmissions simultaneously.
45 Bc Committed Burst Size The maximum number of bits in a specific time period that a Frame Relay network must transfer without discarding any frames.
46 CIR Committed Information Rate The committed burst size divided by time.
47 CGI Common Gateway Interface A standard for communication between HTTP servers and executable programs. CGI is used in creating dynamic documents.
48 CATV Community Antenna TV A cable network service that broadcasts video signals to locations with poor or no reception.
49 CLEC Competitive Local Exchange Carrier A telephone company that cannot provide main telephone services; instead, other services such as mobile telephone service and toll calls inside a LATA are provided.
50 CCK Complementary Code Keying An HR-DSSS encoding method that encodes four or eight bits into one symbol.
51 CBR Constant Bit Rate The data rate of an ATM service class that is designed for customers requiring real-time audio or video services.
52 CCITT Consultative Committee For International Telegraphy and Telephony An international standards group now known as the ITU-T.
53 CS Convergence Sublayer In ATM Protocol, the upper AAL sublayer that adds a header or a trailer to the user data.
54 CBT Core-Based Tree In multicasting, a group-shared protocol that uses a center router as the root of the tree.
55 CRC Cyclic Redundancy Check A highly accurate error-detection method base on interpreting a pattern of bits as a polynomial.
56 DES Data Encryption Standard The U.S. government standard encryption method for nonmilitary and non-classified use.
57 DLCI Data Link Connection Identifier A number that identifies the virtual circuit in Frame Relay.
58 DOCSIS Data Over Cable System Interface Specifications A standard for data transmission over on HFC network.
59 dB Decibel A measure of the relative strength of two signal points.
60 DEMUX Demultiplexer A device that separates a multiplexed signal into its original components.
61 DS or Diffserv Differentiated Services A class-based QoS model designed for IP.
62 D-AMPS Digital AMPS A second-generation cellular phone system that is a digital version of AMPS.
63 DDS Digital Data Service A digital version of an analog leased line with a rate of 64 kbps.
64 DS Digital Signal Service A telephone company service featuring a hierarchy of digital signals.
65 DSL Digital Subscriber Line A technology using existing telecommunication networks to accomplish high-speed delivery of data, voice, video and multimedia.
66 DSLAM Digital Subscriber Line Access Multiplexer A telephone company site device that functions like an ADSL Modem.
67 DC Direct Current A zero-frequency signal with a constant amplitude.
68 DSSS Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum A wireless transmission method in which each bit to be sent by the sender is replaced by a sequence of bits called a chip code.
69 DE Discard Eligibility A bit that identifies a packet that can be discarded if there is congestion in the network.
70 DCT Discrete Cosine Transform A JPEG phase in which a transformation changes the 64 values so that the relative relationships between pixels are kept but the redundancies are revealed.
71 DMT Discrete Multitone Technique A modulation method combining elements of QAM and FDM.
72 DVMRP Distance Vector Multicast Routing Protocol A protocol based on distance vector routing that handles multicast routing in conjunction with IGMP.
73 DCF Distributed Coordination Function The basic access method in wireless LANs; stations contend with each other to get access to the channel.
74 DIFS Distributed InterFrame Space In wireless LANs, a period of time that a station waits before sending a control frame.
75 DNS Domain Name System A TCP/IP application service that converts user-friendly name to IP addresses.
76 DDNS Dynamic Domain Name System A method to update the DNS master file dynamically.
77 DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol An extension to BOOTP that dynamically assigns configuration information.
78 ECB Electronic Code Block Mode A DES and triple DES operation method in which a long message is divided into 64-bit blocks before being encrypted separately.
79 EIA Electronics Industries Association An organization that promotes electronics manufacturing concerns. It has developed interface standards such as EIA-232, EIA-449, and EIA-530.
80 ESP Encapsulating Security Payload A protocol defined by IPSec that provides privacy as well as a combination of integrity and message authentication.
81 Be Excess Burst Size In Frame Relay, the maximum number of bits in excess of Bc that the user can send during a predefined period of time.
82 ESS Extended Service Set A wireless LAN service composed of two or more BSSs with APs as defined by the IEEE 802.11 standard.
83 FCC Federal Communications Commission A government agency that regulates radio, television, and telecommunications.
84 FTP File Transfer Protocol In TCP/IP, an application layer protocol that transfers files between two sites.
85 FIFO First-In, First-Out Queue A queue in which the first item in is the first item out.
86 FECN Forward Explicit Congestion Notification A bit in the Frame Relay Packet that notifies the destination of congestion.
87 FRAD Frame Relay Assembler/Disassembler A device used in Frame Relay to handle frames coming from other protocols.
88 FDMA Frequency Division Multiple Access A Multiple access method in which the bandwidth is divided into channels.
89 FHSS Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum A wireless transmission method in which the sender transmits at one carrier frequency for a short period of time, then hops to another carrier frequency for the same amount of time, hops again for the same amount of time, and so on. After N hops, the cycle is repeated.
90 FM Frequency Modulation An analog-to-analog modulation method in which the carrier signal’s frequency varies with the amplitude of the modulating signal.
91 FSK Frequency Shift Keying A digital-to-analog encoding method in which the frequency of the carrier signal is varied to represent binary 0 and 1.
92 FDMA Frequency -Division Multiple Access An access method technique in which multiple sources use assigned bandwidth in a data communication band.
93 FDM Frequency-Division Multiplexing The combining of analog signals into a single signal.
94 FQDN Fully Qualified Domain Name A Domain name consisting of labels beginning with the host and going back through each level to the root node.
95 GPS Global Positioning System An MEO public satellite system consisting of 24 satellites and used for land and sea navigation. GPS is not used for communication.
96 GSM Global System for Mobile Communication A second-generation cellular phone system used in Europe.
97 HMAC Hashed-Message Authentication Code A MAC based on a keyless hash function such as SHA-1.
98 Hz Hertz Unit of measurement for frequency.
99 HDSL High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line A service similar to the TI-Line that can operate at lengths up to 3.6 km.
100 HR-DSSS High Rate Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum A signal generation method similar to DSSS except for the encoding method. (CCK).
101 HDLC High-Level Data Link Control A bit-oriented data link protocol defined by the ISO.
102 HFC Hybrid-Fiber-Coaxial Network The second generation of cable networks; uses fiber optic and coaxial cable.
103 HTML Hypertext Markup Language The computer language for specifying the contents and format of a web document. It allows additional text to include codes that define fonts, layouts, embedded graphics, and hypertext links.
104 HTTP HyperText Transfer Protocol An application service for retrieving a web document.
105 ILEC Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier A telephone company that provided services before 1996 and is the owner of the cabling system.
106 IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers A group consisting of professional engineers which has specialized societies whose committees prepare standards in members’ areas of specialty.
107 IntServ Integrated Services A Flow-based QoS model designed for IP.
108 IXC Interexchange Carrier A Long-distance company that, prior to the Act of 1996, provided communication services between two customers in different LATAs.
109 IFS InterFrame Space In wireless LANs, a time interval between two frames to control access to the channel.
110 IS-95 Interim Standard 95 One of the dominant second-generation cellular telephony standards in North America.
111 ISO International Organization of Standardization A worldwide organization that defines and develops standards on a variety of topics.
112 ITU-T International Telecommunications Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector A standards organization formerly known as the CCITT.
113 IAB Internet Architecture Board The technical adviser to the ISOC; oversees the continuing development of the TCP/IP protocol suite.
114 IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority A group supported by the U.S. government that was responsible for the management of Internet domain names and addresses until October 1998.
115 ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol A protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite that handles error and control messages.
116 ICMPv6 Internet Control Message Protocol, Version A protocol in IPv6 that handles error and control messages.
117 ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers A private, non-profit corporation managed by an international board that assumed IANA operations.
118 IESG Internet Engineering Steering Group An organization that oversees the activities of IETF.
119 IETF Internet Engineering Task Force A group working on the design and development of the TCP/IP protocol suite and the internet.
120 IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol A protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite that handles multi-casting.
121 IKE Internet Key Exchange A protocol designed to create security associations in SADBs.
122 IMAP4 Internet Mail Access Protocol, Version 4 A complex and powerful protocol to handle the transmission of electronic mail.
123 ITM-2000 Internet Mobile Communication An ITU issued blueprint that defines criteria for third generation cellular telephony.
124 INTERNIC Internet Network Information Center An agency responsible for collecting and distributing information about TCP/IP protocols.
125 IP Internet Protocol The network-layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite governing connection less transmission across packet switching networks.
126 IPng Internet Protocol Next Generation The sixth version of the internet protocol.
127 IPv4 Internet Protocol Version 4 The current version of Internet Protocol.
128 IPv6 Internet Protocol, Version 6 The sixth version of the internet protocol.
129 IRTF Internet Research Task Force A forum of working groups focusing on long-term research topics related to the Internet.
130 ISAKMP Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol A protocol designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) that actually implements the exchanges defined in IKE.
131 ISP Internet Service Provider Usually, a company that provides Internet services.
132 ISOC Internet Society The nonprofit organization established to publicize the Internet.
133 internet Internetwork A network of networks.
134 IPCP Internetwork Protocol Control Protocol In PPP, the set of protocols that establish and terminate a network layer connection for IP packets.
135 IPSec IP Security A collection of protocols designed by the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) to provide security for a packet carried on the Internet.
136 ISUP ISDN User Port A protocol at the upper layer of SS7 that provides services similar to those of an ISDN network.
137 JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group A standard for compressing continuous-tone picture.
138 KDC Key Distribution Center In secret key encryption, a trusted third party that shares a key with each other.
139 LANE LAN Emulation Local Area Network emulation using ATM switches.
140 LEC LAN Emulation Client In ATM LANs, client software that receives services from a LES.
141 LES LAN Emulation Server In ATM LANs, server software that creates a virtual circuit between the source and destination.
142 LCP Link Control Protocol A PPP protocol responsible for establishing, maintaining, configuring, and terminating links.
143 LSA Link State Advertisement In OSPF, method to disperse information.
144 LSP Link State Packet In link state routing, a small packet containing routing information sent by a router to all other routers.
145 LATA Local Access And Transport Area An area covered by one or more telephone companies.
146 LAN Local Area Network A network connecting devices inside a single building or inside buildings close to each other.
147 LANE Local Area Network Emulation Software that enables an ATM switch to behave like a LAN switch.
148 LEC Local Exchange Carrier A telephone company that handles services inside a LATA.
149 LMI Local Management Information A protocol used in Frame Relay that provides management features
150 LLC Logical Link Control The upper sublayer of the data link layer as defined by IEEE Project 802.2.
151 L2CAP Logical Link Control And Adaptation Protocol A Bluetooth layer used for data exchange on an ACL LInk.
152 LEO Low Earth Orbit A polar satellite orbit with an altitude between 500 and 2000 km. A satellite with this orbit has a rotation period of 90 to 120 minutes.
153 MTA Mail Transfer Agent An SMTP component that transfers the mail across the Internet.
154 MIB Management Information Base The database used by SNMP that holds the information necessary for management of a network.
155 MTU Maximum Transfer Unit The largest size data unit a specific network can handle.
156 MAC Medium Access Control Sublayer The lower sublayer in the data link layer defined by the IEEE 802 project. It defines the access method and access control in different local area network protocols.
157 MEO Medium Earth Orbit A satellite orbit positioned between the two Van Allen belts. A satellite at this orbit takes six hours to circle the earth.
158 MAA Message Access Agent A client-server program that pulls the stored email messages.
159 MAC Message Authentication Code A keyed has function.
160 MTA Message Transfer Agent An SMTP component that transfers the message across the Internet.
161 MAN Metropolitan Area Network A network that can span a geographical area the size of a city.
162 MSC Mobile Switching Center In cellular telephony, a switching office that coordinates communication between all base stations and the telephone central office.
163 MTSO Mobile Telephone Switching Office An office that controls and coordinates communication between all of the cell offices and the telephone control office.
164 MDC Modification Detection Code The digest created by a hash function.
165 MPEG Motion Picture Experts Group A method to compress videos.
166 MBONE Multicast Backbone A set of internet routers supporting multi-casting through the use of tunneling.
167 MOSPF Multicast Open Shortest Path First A multicast protocol that uses multicast link state routing to create a source-based least cost tree.
168 MLT-3 Multiline Transmission, 3-Level Encoding A line coding scheme featuring 3 levels of signals and transitions at the beginning of the 1 bit.
169 MA Multiple Access A line access method in which every station can access the line freely.
170 MUX Multiplexer A device used for multiplexing.
171 MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension A supplement to SMTP that allows non-ASCII data to be sent through SMTP.
172 NAP Network Access Point A complex switching station that connects backbone networks.
173 NAT Network Address translation A technology that allows a private network to use a set of private addresses for internal communication and a set of global Internet addresses for external communication.
174 NCP Network Control Protocol In PPP, a set of control protocols that allows the encapsulation of data coming from network layer protocols.
175 NAV Network Allocation Vector In CSMA/CA, the amount of time that must pass before a station can check for an idle line.
176 NIC Network Interface Card An electronic device, internal or external to a station, that contains circuitry to enable the station to be connected to the network.
177 NVT Network Virtual Teminal A TCP/IP application protocol that allows remote login.
178 NNI Network-To-Network Interface In ATM, the interface between two networks.
179 NRZ Non-Return To Zero A digital-to-digital polar encoding method in which the signal level is always either positive or negative.
180 NRZ-I Non-Return To Zero, Invert An NRZ encoding method in which the signal level is inverted each time a 1 is encountered.
181 NRZ-L Non-Return To Zero, Level An NRZ encoding method in which the signal level is directly related to the bit value.
182 NRM Normal Response Mode In HDLC, a communication mode in which the secondary station must have permission from the primary station before transmission can proceed.
183 OSPF Open Shortest Path First An interior routing protocol based on link state routing.
184 OSI Open Systems Internconnection Model A seven-layer model for data communication defined by ISO.
185 OC Optical Carrier The hierarchy of fiber-optic carries defined in SONET.
186 OFDM Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing A multiplexing method similar to FDM, with all the sub-bands used by one source at a given time.
187 OFB Output Feedback Mode A mode similar to the CFB mode with one difference. Each bit in the ciphertext is independent of the previous bit or bits.
188 PQDN Partially Qualified Domain Name A domain name that does not include all the levels between the host and the root node.
189 PAP Password Authentication Protocol A simple two-step authentication protocol used in PPP.
190 PHB Per Hop Behavior In the Diffserv model, a 6-bit field that defines the packet-handling mechanism for the packet.
191 PVC Permanent Virtual Circuit A virtual circuit transmission method in which the same virtual circuit is used between source and destination on a continual basis.
192 PCS Personal Communication System A generic term for a commercial cellular system that offers several kinds of communication services.
193 PM Phase Modulation An analog-to-analog modulation method in which the carrier signal’s phase varies with the amplitude of the modulating signal.
194 PSK Phase Shift Keying A digital-to-analog modulation method in which the phase of the carrier signal is varied to represent a specific bit pattern.
195 POTS Plain Old Telephone System The conventional telephone network used for voice communication.
196 PCF Point Coordination Function In wireless LANs, an optional and complex access method implemented in an infrastructure network.
197 POP Point Of Presence A switching office where carriers can interact with each other.
198 PPP Point-To-Point Protocol A protocol for data transfer across a serial line.
199 P/F Poll/Final Bit A bit in the control field of HDLC; if the primary is sending, it can be a poll bit; if the secondary is sending, it can be a final bit.
200 POP3 Post Office Protocol, Version 3 A popular but simple SMTP mail access protocol.
201 PGP Pretty Good Privacy A protocol that provides all four aspects of security in the sending of email.
202 PIM Protocol Independent Multicast A multi-casting protocol family with two members, PIM-DM and PIM-SM; both protocols are unicast-protocol dependent.
203 PIM-DM Protocol Independent Multicast, Dense Mode A source-based routing protocol that uses RPF and pruning/grafting strategies to handle multi-casting.
204 PIM-SM Protocol Independent Multicast, Sparse Mode A group-shared routing protocol that is similar to CBT and uses a rendezvous point as the source of the tree.
205 PN Pseudorandom Noise A pseudorandom code generator used in FHSS.
206 PKI Public Key Infrastructure A hierarchical structure of CA servers.
207 PAM Pulse Amplitude Modulation A technique in which an analog signal is sampled; the result is a series of pulses based on the sampled data.
208 PCM Pulse Code Modulation A technique that modifies PAM pulses to create a digital signal.
209 QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation A digital-to-analog modulation method in which the phase and amplitude of the carrier signal vary with the modulating signal.
210 QOS Quality Of Service A set of attributes related to the performance of the connection.
211 RADSL Rate Adaptive Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line A DSL-based technology that features different data rates depending on the type of communication.
212 ROM Read-Only Memory Permanent memory with contents that cannot be changed.
213 RTSP Real-Time Streaming Protocol An out-of-band control protocol designed to add more functionality to the streaming audio/video process.
214 RTCP Real-Time Transport Control Protocol A companion protocol to RTP with messages that control the flow and quality of data and allow the recipient to send feedback to the source or sources.
215 RTP Real-Time Transport Protocol A Protocol for real-time traffic; used in conjunction with UDP.
216 RFC Request For Comment A formal Internet document concerning an Internet issue.
217 RSVP Resource Reservation Protocol A signaling protocol to help IP create a flow and make a resource reservation to improve QoS.
218 RZ Return To Zero A digital-to-digital encoding technique in which the voltage of the signal is zero for the second half of the bit interval.
219 RARP Reverse Address Resolution Protocol A TCP/IP protocol that allows a host to find its Internet address given its physical address.
220 RPB Reverse Path Broadcasting A technique in which the router forwards only the packets that have traveled the shortest path from the source to the router.
221 RPF Reverse Path Forwarding A technique in which the router forwards only the packets that have traveled the shortest path from the source to the router.
222 RPM Reverse Path Multicasting A technique that adds pruning and grafting to RPB to create a multicast shortest path tree that supports dynamic membership changes.
223 RSA Rivest, Sharmir, Adleman Encryption A popular public-key encryption method developed by Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman.
224 RTT Round-Trip Time The time required for a datagram to go from a source to a destination and then back again.
225 RIP Routing Information Protocol A routing protocol based on the distance vector routing algorithm.
226 SHA-1 Secure Hash Algorithm 1 A hash algorithm designed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). It was published as a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS).
227 SSL Secure Socket Layer A protocol designed to provide security and compression services to data generated from the application layer.
228 SA Security Association An IPSec protocol that creates a logical connection between two hosts.
229 SADB Security Association Database A database defining a set of single security associations.
230 SPI Security Parameter Index A parameter that uniquely distinguish one security association from the others.
231 SAR Segmentation And Reassembly The lower AAL sublayer in the ATM protocol in which a header and/or trailer may be added to produce a 48-byte element.
232 SCP Server Control Point In SS7 terminology, the node that controls the whole operation of the network.
233 SIP Session Initiation Protocol In voice over IP, an application protocol that establishes, manages, and terminates a multimedia session.
234 STP Shielded Twisted-Pair Twisted-pair cable enclosed in a foil or mesh shield that protects against electromagnetic interference.
235 SIFS Short Inter-Frame Space In CSMA/CA, a period of time that the destination waits after receiving the RTS.
236 SCCP Signaling Connection Control Point In SS7, the control points used for special services such as 800 calls.
237 SP Signal Point In SS7 terminology, the user telephone or computer is connected to the signal points.
238 STP Signal Transport Port In SS7 terminology, the node used by the signaling network.
239 SS7 Signaling System Seven The protocol that is used in the signaling network.
240 SNR Signal-To-Noise Ratio The ratio of average signal power to average noise power.
241 SEAL Simple And Efficient Adaptation Layer An AAL layer designed for the Internet (AAL5).
242 SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol The TCP/IP protocol defining electronic mail service on the Internet.
243 SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol The TCP/IP protocol that specifies the process of management in the Internet.
244 SCTP Stream Control Transmission Protocol The transport layer protocol designed for Internet telephony and related applications.
245 SMI Structure of Management Information In SNMP, a component used in network management.
246 SVC Switched Virtual Circuit A virtual Circuit transmission method in which a virtual circuit is created and in existence only for the duration of the exchange.
247 SDSL Symmetric Digital Subscriber Line A DSL-based technology similar to HDSL, but using only one single twisted-pair cable.
248 SCO Synchronous Connection Oriented Link In a Bluetooth network, a physical link created between a master and a slave that reserves specific slots at regular intervals.
249 SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy The ITU-T equivalent of SONET.
250 SPE Synchronous Payload Envelope The part of the SONET frame containing user data and transmission overhead.
251 STM Synchronous Transport Module A signal in the SDH hierarchy.
252 STS Synchronous Transport Signal A signal in the SONET hierarchy.
253 TUP Telephone User Port A protocol at the upper layer of SS7 that is responsible for setting up voice calls.
254 TELNET Terminal Network A general purpose client-server program that allows remote login.
255 TGS Ticket-Granting Server A Kerberos server that issues tickets.
256 TDD-TDMA Time Division Duplexing TDMA In a Bluetooth network, a kind of half-duplex communication in which the slave and receiver send and receive data, but not at the same time (half-duplex).
257 TDMA Time Division Multiple Access A multiple access method in which the bandwidth is just one time-shared channel.
258 TTL Time To Live The lifetime of a packet.
259 TDM Time-Division Multiplexing The technique of combining signals coming from low-speed channels to share time on a high-speed path.
260 TSI Time-Slot Interchange A time-division switch consisting of RAM and a control unit.
261 TCAP Transaction Capabilities Application Port A protocol at the upper layer SS7 that provides remote procedure calls that let an application program on a computer invoke a procedure on another computer.
262 TCP Transmission Control Protocol A transport protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite.
263 TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Interworking Protocol A five-layer protocol suite that defines the exchange of transmissions across the Internet.
264 TLS Transport Layer Security The IETF standard version of SSL. The two are very similar, with slight differences.
265 TFTP Trivial File Transfer Protocol An unreliable TCP/IP protocol for file transfer that does not require complex interaction between client and server.
266 TOS Type Of Service A criteria or value that specifies the handling of the datagram.
267 URL Uniform Resource Locator A string of characters (address) that identifies a page on a World Wide Web.
268 UTP Unshielded Twisted-Pair A cable with wires that are twisted together to reduce noise and crosstalk.
269 UBR Unspecified Bit Rate The data rate of an ATM service class specifying only best-effort delivery.
270 UA User Agent An SMTP component that prepares the message, creates the envelope, and puts the message in the envelope.
271 UDP User Datagram Protocol A connection-less TCP/IP transport layer protocol.
272 UNI User Network Interface The interface between a user and the ATM network.
273 UNI User-To-Network Interface In ATM, the interface between and end point (user) and an ATM switch.
274 VBR Variable Bit Rate The data rate of an ATM service class for users needing a varying bit rate.
275 VDSL Very High Bit Rate Digital Subscriber Line A DSL-based technology for short distances.
276 VC Virtual Circuit A logical circuit made between the ending and receiving computer.
277 VPN Virtual Private Network A technology that creates a network that is physically public, but virtually private.
278 VT Virtual Tributary A partial payload that can be inserted into a SONET frame and combined with other partial payloads to fill out the frame.
279 VOFR Voice Over Frame Relay A Frame Relay option that can handle voice data.
280 WDM Wave-Division Multiplexing The combining of modulated light signals into one signal.
281 WAN Wide Area Network A network that uses a technology that can span a large geographical distance.
282 WATS Wide Area Telephone Service A telephone service in which the charges are based on the number of calls made.
283 WWW World Wide Web A multimedia Internet Service that allows users to traverse the Internet by moving from one document to another via links that connect them together.

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