[Linux] List of Important BASH External Commands

Bash External Commands Techhyme

The bash shell utilizes many bash external commands to allow you to maneuver around the file systems and manipulate files and directories.

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Bash is an sh-compatible shell that incorporates useful features from the Korn shell (ksh) and C shell (csh). It is intended to conform to the IEEE POSIX P1003.2/ISO 9945.2 Shell and Tools standard.

It offers functional improvements over sh for both programming and interactive use; these include command line editing, unlimited size command history, job control, shell functions and aliases, indexed arrays of unlimited size, and integer arithmetic in any base from two to sixty-four. Bash can run most sh scripts without modification.

Below is the list of common bash external commands you’ll want to use when working in the bash shell.

S.No. Command Description
1 bzip2 Compression using the Burrows-Wheeler block sorting text compression algorithm and Huffman coding.
2 cat List the contents of the specified file.
3 change Change the password expiration date for the specified system user account.
4 chfn Change the specified user account’s comment information.
5 chgrp Change the default group of the specified file or directory.
6 chmod Change system security permissions for the specified file or directory.
7 chown Change the default owner of the specified file or directory.
8 chpasswd Read file of login name and password pairs and update the passwords.
9 chsh Change the specified user account’s default shell
10 compress Original Unix files compression utility.
11 cp Copy the specified files to an alternate location.
12 date Display the date in various formats.
13 df Display current disk space statistics For all mounted devices.
14 du Display disk usage statistics for the specified file path.
15 file View the file type of the specified file.
16 find Perform recursive search for files
17 finger Display information about user accounts on the Linux system or remote system.
18 free Check available and used memory on the system.
19 grep Search file for the specified text string.
20 groupadd Create new system group.
21 groupmod Modify an existing system group.
22 gzip The GNU Project’s compression using Lempel-Ziv compression.
23 head Display the first portion of the specified file’s contents.
24 killall Send system signal to a running process based on process name
25 less Advanced viewing of file contents.
26 link Create a link to file using an alias name.
27 ls List directory contents.
28 mkdir Create the specified directory under the current directory.
29 more List the contents of the specified file, pausing after each screen of data
30 mount Display or mount disk devices into the virtual file system.
31 mv Rename a file.
32 nice Run a command using different priority level on the system.
33 passwd Change the password for system user account.
34 ps Display information about the running processes on the system.
35 pwd Display the current directory.
36 renice Change the priority of running application on the system.
37 rm Delete the specified file.
38 rmdir Delete the specified directory.
39 sort Organize data in data file based on the specified order.
40 stat View the file statistics of the specified file.
41 sudo Run an application as the root user account.
42 tail Display the last portion of the specified file’s contents.
43 tar Archive data and directories into single file.
44 touch Create new empty file, or update the timestamp on an existing file.
45 top Display the active processes, showing vital system statistics.
46 umount Remove mounted disk device from the virtual file system.
47 uptime Display information on how long the system has been running.
48 useradd Create new system user account.
49 userdel Remove an existing system user account.
50 usermod Modify an existing system user account.
51 vmstat Produce detailed report on memory and CPU usage on the system
52 which Find the location of an executable file
53 zip Unix version of the Windows PKZIP program.