July 30, 2021


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75 Basic Terms Related To Information Technology

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Information Technology consists of all forms of technology used to create, store and exchange information in various forms, i.e. it incorporates all computerized and automated information handling including system design and analysis, conversion of data, computer programming, information storage and retrieval, voice, video and data communications.

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Over the last decade, organizations worldwide have transformed the way they do business by investing millions of dollars in IT. Today information technology is not just computer literacy. It also takes into account how computers work and how these computers can further be used not just for information processing but also for communications and problem solving tasks as well. The impact of information technology has been felt all over the world and in all areas of life like Education, Entertainment, Scientific Applications, Artificial Intelligence and Robotics etc.

Below is the list of some basics terms related to Information Technology which you need to know:

  1. Application Software: Software that has been developed with an intention to solve a particular problem is called application software.
  2. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): It performs mathematical, logical and decision operations in a computer. It is made up of devices called gates that receive one or more inputs and,based upon what function they are designed to perform, output a result.
  3. Assembler: An assembler is used to convert the code program written in assembly language into a machine language code.
  4. Asynchronous Mode: In asynchronous mode of data transmission,at a time only one byte of data can be sent or received.
  5. Bandwidth: Bandwidth is defined as the range of frequencies that any medium can pass through.
  6. Bar Code Reader: In bar code reader, the bar coded item is gone through a laser scanner or a stick is moved the bar code to read in the data. It somewhat similar to a scanner but it is much simpler in nature. It is commonly used at supermarket checkouts, malls in big cities, digital libraries etc.
  7. Bit Stream: Bit stream is defined as a grouping of data units in the form of bits. Bit streams are generally represented in the form of 0s and 1s.
  8. Bit Rate: Bit rare is defined as the number of bits that can be transmitted per unit of time.
  9. Boolean Algebra: An algebra that deals with logical propositions which are either true or false and to simplify such propositions is called Boolean algebra.
  10. Bus Topology: In bus topology, there exists a main cable which is shared by all the nodes linked to this main cable called bus directly.
  11. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT): Cathode ray tube contains an electron gun at the back of the tube which fires electrons at a collection of phosphor dots coating the inside of the screen. When the electron strikes the phosphor dots they glow to give the colors.
  12. Central Processing Unit (CPU): Central Processing Unit or processor is known as the brain of any computer system.It is the central component of the computer system. All the operations that are performed on a computer are carried out directly or indirectly by the processor.
  13. Compiler: A compiler is used to convert a program written in some high language into a target machine understandable language. This conversion is done in one step and reports all the errors of the program at the end.
  14. Computer: A computer is defined as an electronic device that takes data as an input from user and performs various operations on it to obtain the required information.
  15. Computer Network: It is the practice of connecting two or more computers or devices with each other.
  16. Control Unit: It controls the input and output operations along with data transfer to and from the storage unit finally routing the data between storage location and ALU.
  17. Data Communication: Data communication is a progression of sharing data and shared resources between two or more connected nodes or computers.
  18. Digital Camera: It is an input device which is used by receiving the light via lens. This light is then converted to digital signals by sensors.
  19. Dot-Matrix Printer: It has a print head that travels across the paper. The head has a set of pins which are pushed out to form the shape of each character. The pins hit an ink ribbon against the paper as the print head moves along.
  20. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC): It was the first electronic computer designed in 1946.
  21. Ergonomic: This keyboard is constructed in such a manner so that the keyboard is divided into two parts. One half fits the right hand and the other half fits the left hand.
  22. Floppy Disk: Floppy disks are useful for transferring data between computers and for keeping a back-up of small files.
  23. Frequency: Frequency is simply the rate of change with time, Typically, It is defined as the number of cycles completed per unit of time.
  24. Full Duplex: In full-duplex mode of communication, both the computers are able to act as sender and receiver at the same time.
  25. Graphics Tablet: It is basically a flat pad on which we can write or draw by making use of a pressure sensitive stylus like a pen.
  26. Half Duplex: In half-duplex mode of communication, the data can be sent by both the computer’s sender and receiver, but not simultaneously.
  27. Hard Disk: The hard disk drive of the computer is where permanent information is stored. Documents, Databases, Spreadsheets, and programs are all stored on the hard disk.
  28. Hardware: Hardware is defined as the physical, substantial and touchable components of the computer.
  29. Ink-Jet Printers: Inkjet printers constitute the print head which contains tiny nozzles through which different colored inks can be sprayed onto the paper to form the characters or the graphic images.
  30. Internet Activities Board (IAB): The various architectural issues related to Internet are handled by Internet Activities Board.
  31. Information Technology: Information technology encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange and use information in its various forms, i.e., it incorporates all computerized and automated information handling, including system design and analysis, conversion of data, computer programming, information storage and retrieval, voice, video, data communication
  32. Input Unit: Input unit is used to fetch or retrieve the data from the outer world and then convert it into computer machine understandable form, so that it can further be transferred to the computer system for further processing.
  33. Internet: Internet is at once a world-wide broadcasting capability, a mechanism for information propagation, and an intermediate for association and interaction between individuals and their computers without taking into account their geographic location. The Internet characterizes one of the most victorious examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure.
  34. Interpreter: An interpreter is used to convert a program written in some high level language into a machine level language, This conversion is done simultaneously with the execution of the program line by line.
  35. Joystick: Joystick works in a similar fashion as mouse does. It is also referred to as a pointing device to point anything on the CRT screen.
  36. Keyboard: It facilitates the user to use an English-like language to issue instructions to an electronic device.
  37. Language Processor: It is used to process a program written in some high level language so that it is easily understood by the computer.
  38. Laser Printers: Laser printers solve the printing purpose in the same way as photocopy machines generally do. The powdered ink toner is transferred to the paper and then fixed by heat and pressure.
  39. Light Pen: Light pen has the feature to work directly on the screen.
  40. Liquid crystal displays (LCD):  These use tiny crystals which, when a charge is applied across them, polarize the light passing through them.
  41. Local area networks (LAN): Local area network is restricted to a particular small geographical area covering an area of a single building or other few nearby buildings for data communication.
  42. Logic Diagram: A Boolean function can be transformed from an algebraic expression into a logic diagram composed of AND, OR and NOT gates.
  43. Magnetic Disk: Magnetic disk stores the binary data on a disk or tape coated with a material that can be magnetized differently, depending on whether a o or 1 is stored Bits of data 0’s and 1;s are stored on circular magnetic platters called disks.
  44. Memory Unit: A memory is defined as the computer’s workspace where data and programs for immediate processing are held. Computer memory is contained on memory chips that are mounted on the motherboard.
  45. Mesh Topology: In mesh topology, there exists a straight path between any two modes of a network. These straight paths are also called point-to-point or P to P connection.
  46. Metropolitan Area network (MAN): Metropolitan area network constitutes a geographical area which is greater as compared to that of LAN. In general, MAN is designed to extend over an entire city.
  47. Microphone: It is an important input device which is used to enter the input in the form of voice rather than using keyboard and mouse.
  48. Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET): A mobile adhoc network is a wireless network that uses multi-hop peer-to-peer routing instead of static network infrastructure to provide network connectivity. Ad-hoc networks are the best candidates to offer, with all the challenges it implies, mobility and location-independent multimedia communications.
  49. Monitor: A monitor is the screen on which words, numbers, and graphics can be seen.The monitor is the most common output device.
  50. Mouse: It is better known as a pointing device because it is used to point some data or picture on the screen.
  51. Multipoint Connection: In multipoint connection, there exists a committed association between the two or more computers.
  52. Network: It refers to a collection of entities, real-world objects, people, etc. that are connected to one another in some particular fashion.
  53. Nodes: Computers or entities or workstations on a network are called nodes.
  54. Number System: In a number system certain symbols are used, which are known as digits.
  55. Operating System: An operating system is defined as an interface or bridge between the user of a computer and the computer hardware.
  56. Optical Disk: An optical disk is a high-capacity storage medium. An optical drive uses reflected light to read data. To store data, the disk;s metal surface is covered with tiny pits and flat lands, which cause light to be reflected differently.
  57. Output Unit: Output unit is used to produce the results to the outer world by converting it into human understandable form, so that it can further be used by the user.
  58. Peer-to-Peer or Point-to-Point or P-to-P Connection: In this type of connection, there exists a committed linkage or bondage between the two computers.
  59. Peripheral: A peripheral in computer terminology is defined as a device which is basically not an essential component but still it plays vital roles. A peripheral acts as an interface between the user and computer system.
  60. Plotter: Plotter is used to produce hard copies mainly of graphical pictures, images or design patterns. Plotter uses high precision motors to describe on paper with colored ink pens.
  61. Printer: Printer is one of the most commonly used output device which produces output in the form of a hard copy i.e. on the paper.
  62. Ring Topology: In ring topology, each node is connected to another node in such a fashion that they form a ring structure. The data is transmitted in the form of tokens through the ring infrastructure.
  63. Scanner: Scanner is used to input the data which works in a similar fashion as a photocopy machine does. It scans a full page with laser light but instead of printing copies, It transmits the image to the computer as digital code, which can be saved as a file.
  64. Secondary Storage: Secondary storage is more permanent than main memory, as data and programs are retained when the power is turned off.
  65. Server: The devices that assign the various resources for a network are called servers.
  66. Simplex Mode: In simplex mode of communication, the data is sent in only one direction.
  67. Software: Software is defined as a collection of computer programs that manages the functioning of a computer system.
  68. Speaker: By means of speaker we can receive the information in terms of voice.
  69. Star Topology: In star topology, each node is connected directly to a central device called hub. There is no direct communication link between the nodes. The nodes thus transmit the data only via hub.
  70. Synchronous Mode: In synchronous mode of data transmission, at a time group of any number of bytes of data can be sent or received.
  71. System Software: Software that manages the overall distribution and usage of hardware resources is called system software.
  72. Topology: The topology defines the layout of the arrangement of various devices and peripherals involved in a network. By means of topology, it can easily be visualized how various components in a network are connected to each other.
  73. Truth Table: The relationship between a function and its binary variables can be represented in the truth table.
  74. Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC-I): It was the first digital computer designed in 1951.
  75. Wide area network (WAN): Wide area network constitutes a geographical area which is even larger as compared to that of WAN. It facilitates the transmission of data over very long distances.

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